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ACETATE: A manufactured fibre formed by a compound of cellulose – refined from cotton linters and/or wood pulp – and acedic acid that has been extruded through a spinneret and then hardened.
ACRYLIC: A manufactured fibre derived from polyacrylonitrile. Its major properties include a soft, wool-like hand, machine washable and dryable, excellent colour retention.
ALPACA: A natural hair fibre obtained from the Alpaca sheep, a domesticated member of the llama family. The fibre is most commonly used in fabrics for dresses, suits, coats, and sweaters.
ANGORA: The hair of the Angora goat. Also known as Angora mohair, Angora may also apply to the fur of the Angora rabbit. By law, any apparel containing Angora rabbit hair must be labelled as "Angora rabbit hair" on the garment.
APPLIQUE: A cut out decoration fastened to a larger piece of material.
BACKED CLOTH: A material with an extra warp or filling added for weight and warmth. Satin weave and twill weave constructions are frequently used in the design of backed cloth because they are relatively resistant to the passage of air
BALLISTIC: A thick woven, high denier fabric that is extremely abrasion resistant and tough. Used in apparel, packs, and gear.
BAMBOO: Bamboo fabric is a natural textile made from the pulp of bamboo grass. Bamboo fibre resembles cotton in its unspun form, a puffball of light, airy fibres. To make bamboo fibre, bamboo is heavily pulped until it separates into thin component threads of fibre, which can be spun and dyed for weaving into cloth. Bamboo is nature’s most sustainable resource. It is grown without pesticides or chemicals, is 100% biodegradable, and is naturally regenerative. Some bamboo species grow up to 4 feet per day.
BATISTE: A medium-weight, plain weave fabric, usually made of cotton or cotton blends. End-uses include blouses and dresses.
BEADED VELVET: Velvet with a cut-out pattern or a velvet pile effect, made on a Jacquard loom. This fabric is used primarily for evening wear.
BEFORD CORD: A cotton-like fabric with raised ridges in the lengthwise direction. Since the fabric has a high strength and a high durability, it is often used for upholstery and work clothes.
BENGALINE: A fabric with a crosswise ribbed effect made of rayon, nylon, cotton, or wool - often in combination.
BLEND: A term applied to a yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one fibre. In blended yarns, two or more different types of staple fibres are twisted or spun together to form the yarn. An example of a typical blended yarn or fabric is polyester/cotton.
BOUCLE: A knit or woven fabric made from a rough, curly, knotted boucle yarn. The fabric has a looped, knotted surface and is often used in sportswear and coats.
BROADCLOTH: A plain weave tightly woven fabric, characterized by a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling. The most common broadcloth is made from cotton or cotton/polyester blends. Originally a silk shirting fabric, it was so named because it was woven in widths exceeding the usual 29 inches.
BROCADE: A rich, Jacquard woven fabric with an all-over interwoven design of raised figures or flowers. The pattern is emphasized by contrasting surfaces or colours and often has gold or silver threads running through it.
BROCATELLE: A fabric similar to brocade with a satin or twill figure in high relief on a plain or satin background.
BUNTING: A soft, flimsy, loose-textured, plain weave cloth similar to cheesecloth. Can be either a cotton or wool fabric. Often used in flags.
BURLAP: A loosely constructed, heavy weight, plain weave fabric used as a carpet backing, and as inexpensive packaging for sacks of grain or rice. Burlap may also appear as a drapery fabric.
BUTCHER’S LINEN: A plain weave, stiff fabric with thick and thin yarns in both the warp and the filling. The fabric was originally made of linen but is now often duplicated in polyester or a variety of blends.
CALICO: A tightly-woven cotton-type fabric with an all-over print, usually a small floral pattern on a contrasting background colour. Common end-uses include dresses, aprons, and quilts.
CAMBRIC: A soft, white, closely woven, cotton or cotton blend fabric that has been calendered on the right side to give it a slight gloss. Cambric is used extensively for handkerchiefs.
CAMEL’S HAIR: A natural fibre obtained from the hair of the two-humped Bactrian camel. The fibre is used primarily in coats, sweaters, and suits.
CANVAS: Cotton, linen, or synthetic fabric made with a basic plain weave in heavy and firm weight yarns for industrial or heavy duty purposes. Also referred to as "duck", although the term "canvas" usually relates to the heavier, coarser constructions.
CASHMERE: A luxury fibre obtained from the soft, fleecy undercoat of the Kashmir goat.
CELLULOSE: A material derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Cellulose is used in the production of many vegetable fibres such as cotton, linen, jute, and hemp. It is also a basic raw material in the manufactured fibres rayon, acetate, and triacetate.
CHALLIS: A lightweight, soft plain weave fabric with a slightly brushed surface. The fabric is often printed, usually in a floral pattern. Challis is most often seen in fabrics made of cotton, wool, or rayon.
CHAMPRAY: A plain woven fabric that is most commonly made from cotton but can be made from silk or manufactured fibres. It incorporates a coloured warp (often blue) and white filling yarns.
CHANTILLY LACE: This lace has a net background, and the pattern is created by embroidering with thread and ribbon to create floral designs. The pattern has areas of design that are very dense, and the pattern is often outlined with heavier cords or threads.
CHARMEUSE: Trade name of silk and silk-like fabrics that are characterized by a shiny, soft, satin-like appearance.
CHENILLE: A speciality yarn characterized by soft, fuzzy yarns standing out around a velvety cord. The name comes from the French word for "caterpillar."
CHIFFON: A lightweight, sheer fabric woven from highly twisted filament yarns. The twist in the crepe yarns puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel.
CHINCHILLA CLOTH: A heavy, twill weave, filling-pile fabric with a napped surface that is rolled into little tufts or nubs. The material is frequently double- faced. The term is also used to refer to a knitted woolen fabric having a napped surface. Used primarily in coats.
CHINO: A cotton or cotton blend twill used by armies throughout the world for summer-weight uniforms. Chino is frequently dyed khaki and is now finding popularity for sportswear and work clothes.
CHINZ: A plain weave fabric, which has been glazed to produce a polished look. Usually made of cotton, this fabric is most commonly used in blouses, dresses, draperies, and slipcovers.
COMBINATION FABRIC: A fabric containing different fibres in the warp and filling. Combination fabrics may be either knit or woven. They should not be confused with blend fabrics. Although blend fabrics also contain more than one fibre, the same intimately blended spun yarn is present in both warp and filling.
COMBINATION YARN: A piled yarn containing two or more yarns that vary in fibre composition, content, and/or twist level; or plied yarn composed of both filament yarn and spun yarn.
CORDUROY: A fabric, usually made of cotton, utilizing a cut-pile weave construction. Extra sets of filling yarns are woven into the fabric to form ridges of yarn on the surface. The ridges are built so that clear lines can be seen when the pile is cut
COTTON: A unicellular, natural fibre that grows in the seed pod of the cotton plant. The fibre is most often spun into thread used to make a soft, breathable textile.
CREPE: Used to describe all kinds of fabrics that have a crinkly, crimped or grained surface. From the French word creper, which means to “crimp or frizz.”
CREPE BACK SATIN: A satin fabric in which highly-twisted yarns are used in the filling direction. The floating yarns are made with low twist and may be of either high or low lustre. If the crepe effect is on the right side of the fabric, the fabric is called satin back crepe.
CREPE DE CHINE: Softer and shiner than crepe back satin and lighter in weight. Typically made from rayon or silk.
CRINOLINE: A lightweight, plain weave, stiffened fabric with a low yarn count. Often used as an interlining or to support areas such as the edge of a hem.
CROCHETED: Loose, open knit made by looping thread with a hooked needle.
DAMASK: A glossy Jacquard fabric, usually made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or blends. The patterns are flat and reversible. The fabric is often used in napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.
DENIM: True denim is a firm twill-weave, cotton-like fabric often having white filling yarns and coloured warp yarns (usually blue).
DOBBY: A decorative weave, characterized by simple geometric forms or motifs woven into the fabric structure. The design on the fabric is created in the weaving process.
DONEGAL TWEED: A medium to heavy, plain or twill weave fabric in which colourful yarn slubs are woven into the fabric. The name originally applied to a hand-woven woolen tweed fabric made in Donegal, Ireland. End-uses include winter coats and suits.
DOTTED SWISS: A lightweight, sheer cotton or cotton blend fabric with a small dot flock-like pattern either printed on the surface of the fabric, or woven into the fabric. End-uses include blouses, dresses, baby clothes, and curtains.
DOUBLE SILK: Similar to silk georgette but of double the weight.
DUPION SILK: A rough or irregular yarn made of silk reeled from double or triple cocoons. Fabrics of dupion have an irregular appearance with long, thin slubs.
DUCHESSE SATIN: smooth, full bodied fabric with sheen. Often a mix of silk and manufactured fibres. A favorite for full or A-line skirts.
DUNGAREE: A term describing a coarse denim-type fabric, usually dyed blue, that is used for work overalls.
ELASTANE: A synthetic fibre known for its exceptional elasticity. Also known as Lycra and often called Spandex in North America.
EMBROIDERED: An embellishment of a fabric or garment in which colored threads are sewn into the fabric to create a design. Embroidery may be done either by hand or machine.
EYELET: A type of fabric which contains patterned cut-outs, around which stitching or embroidery may be applied in order to prevent the fabric from raveling.
FAGOTING: A method of decorating cloth by pulling out horizontal threads and tying the remaining vertical threads into hourglass-shaped bunches. This openwork decoration might also be formed of thread drawn in criss-cross stitches across an open seam, which is also called ladder braid.
FAILLE: A glossy, soft, finely-ribbed, silk-like woven fabric made from cotton, silk, or manufactured fibres.
FELT: A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, or fur, and sometimes in combination with certain manufactured fibres, where the fibres are locked together in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressure to form a compact material.
FIBRE: The basic entity, either natural or manufactured, which is twisted into yarns, and then used in the production of a fabric.
FLANNEL: A medium-weight, plain or twill weave fabric that is typically made from cotton, a cotton blend, or wool. The fabric is brushed on both sides to lift the fibre ends out of the base fabric and create a soft, fuzzy surface. End-uses include shirts, sheets and pajamas.
FLAX: The plant from which cellulosic linen fibre is obtained.
FLEECE: The wool shorn from any sheep, or from any animal in the wool category.
FLEECE FABRIC: A lightweight fabric with a thick, heavy fleece-like surface. It may be a pile or napped fabric, of either woven or knit construction. Provides enhanced durability warmth, wind resistance, breathability, and weather protection. End-uses include coats, jackets, and blankets
FLOCKING: A type of raised decoration applied to the surface of a fabric in which an adhesive is printed on the fabric in a specific pattern, and then finely chopped fibres are applied by means of dusting, air-brushing, or electrostatic charges. The fibres then adhere only to the areas where the adhesive has been applied.
FOIL: A thin piece of material put under another material to add colour or brilliance.
FOULARD: A lightweight twill weave fabric, made from filament yarns like silk, acetate, or polyester, with a small all-over print pattern on a solid background. The fabric is often used in men's ties.
GABARDINE: A tightly woven, twilled, worsted fabric with a slight diagonal line on the right side. Wool gabardine is known as a year-round fabric for business suiting.
GAUZE: A thin, sheer plain-weave fabric made from cotton, wool, silk, or manufactured fibres. End-uses include curtains, apparel, trimmings, and surgical dressings.
GEORGETTE: A sheer, lightweight silk or silk-like fabric with a dull, creped surface.
GINGHAM: A medium-weight, plain weave fabric with a plaid or check pattern.
HERRINGBONE: A twill weave construction in which the twill is reversed, or broken, at regular intervals, producing a zig-zag effect.
HIGH VISIBILITY FABRICS: Fabrics that contain fluorescent materials in order to make the wearer visible in dim and dark lights. These fabrics have the ability to reflect on-coming lights, which cause them to glow in the dark.
HOUNDSTOOTH CHECK: A variation on the twill weave construction in which a broken check effect is produced by a variation in the pattern of interlacing yarns, utilizing at least two different coloured yarns.
INTARSIA: A coloured design knitted on both sides of a fabric.
JACQUARD: Elaborate woven or knitted pattern made on a Jacquard loom. Invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in France in 1801.
JERSEY: A tricot fabric made with a simple stitch and without a distinct rib. Characterized by excellent drape and wrinkle recovery properties. First manufactured on the island of Jersey.
JUTE: A bast fibre, chiefly from India, used primarily for gunny sacks, bags, cordage, and binding threads in carpets and rugs.
LAWN: A light, fine cloth made using carded or combed linen or cotton yarns. The fabric has a crease-resistant, crisp finish.
LAMB’S WOOL: The first clip of wool sheered from lambs up to eight months old. The wool is soft, slippery and resilient. It is used in fine grade woolen fabrics.
LENO WEAVE: A construction of woven fabrics in which the resulting fabric is very sheer, yet durable. In this weave, two or more warp yarns are twisted around each other as they are interlaced with the filling yarns; thus securing a firm hold on the filling yarns and preventing them from slipping out of position. Leno weave fabrics are frequently used for window treatments, because their structure gives good durability with almost no yarn slippage, and permits the passage of light and air. Also called the gauze weave.
LINEN: A fabric made from fibres of the flax plant woven into a fabric that is cooler, stronger, and more absorbent than cotton.
LUREX: A metallic yarn.
LYCRA: see Elastane
LYOCELL: A manufactured fibre composed of regenerated cellulose. Lyocell has a similar hand and drape as rayon, but is stronger and more durable. Also the generic name for Tencel.
MADRAS: A lightweight plain weave cotton fabric with a striped, plaid, or checked pattern. A true madras will bleed when washed. This type of fabric is usually imported from India. End-uses are men's and women's shirts and dresses.
MATELASSE: A medium to heavyweight luxury fabric made in a double cloth construction to create a blistered or quilted surface. Common end-uses are upholstery, draperies, and evening dresses.
MARABOU: A delicate, white raw silk thread that can be dyed with the natural gum still in it. Also refers to the fabric made of this silk.
MATTE: Lacks lustre or gloss and has a usually smooth, even surface free from shine or highlights.
MELTON: A heavyweight, dense, compacted, and tightly woven wool or wool blend fabric. Used mainly for coats.
MERINO WOOL: A high quality wool yarn made from the fleece of Merino sheep. It is fine, strong, elastic, and takes dye well.
MICRO FIBRE: Generic term for any synthetic fibre finer than silk. Comparatively, micro fibres are two times finer than silk, three times finer than cotton, eight times finer than wool, and one hundred times finer than a human hair. The fabrics made from these extra-fine fibres are soft, lightweight, breathable, and durable.
MILK: A relatively new substance used for weaving fabric. After getting rid of milk fat, the milk is curdled and the proteins are separated and concentrated into a viscous solution. That solution is forced through a capillary and is then hardened into a solid fibre that can be spun around a bobbin. Milk fabric is similar to silk in feel. It’s not a very hardy fibre, but milk fabric absorbs moisture and dye well and blends well with other fibres. The amino acids present in the fibre make it antibacterial and antifungal and some say it makes the skin more refreshed and smooth.
MODAL: A bio-based fibre made by spinning reconstituted cellulose from beech trees. Essentially a variety of rayon, it is more water-absorbent than cotton and retains its shape when wet.
MOHAIR: Hair fibres from the Angora goat. One of the oldest textile fibres in use, mohair is durable, resilient and has a high lustre and sheen. End-uses include sweaters, coats, suits, and scarves.
MOIRE/ WATERMARKED FABRIC: A corded fabric, usually made from silk or one of the manufactured fibres, which has a distinctive watermarked wavy pattern on the face of the fabric.
MONK’S CLOTH: A heavy weight cotton fabric utilizing the basket weave variation of the plain weave. Used for draperies and slip covers, it has poor dimensional stability and tends to snag.
MUSLIN: An inexpensive, medium weight, plain weave, low thread count cotton sheeting fabric. In its unfinished form, it is commonly used in fashion design to make trial garments for preliminary fit.
NAINSOOK: A lightweight plain weave cotton fabric, usually finished to create lustre and a soft hand. Common end-uses are infants' wear, blouses, and lingerie.
NET: An open mesh fabric of rayon, nylon, cotton, or silk, made in a variety of geometric-shaped meshes of different sizes and weights, matched to various end-uses. The net is made by knotting the intersections of thread or cord to form the mesh.
NINON: A lightweight, plain weave fabric, made of silk or manufactured fibres, with an open mesh-like appearance. Since the fabric is made with high twist filament yarns, it has a crisp hand. End-uses include eveningwear and curtains.
NYLON: Produced in 1938, nylon was the first completely synthetic fibre developed. Known for its high strength and excellent resilience, nylon has superior abrasion resistance and high flexibility.
ORGANDY: A sheer, stiff muslin-like fabric. It is the sheerest cotton made. End-uses include blouses, dresses, and curtains/draperies.
ORGANZA: The filament yarn counterpart to organdy. A crisp, sheer, lightweight plain-weave fabric, with a medium to high yarn count. The traditional and most luxurious organzas are woven with silk but nowadays, many are woven with synthetic filament fibres such as polyester or nylon.
OTTOMAN: A tightly woven, plain-weave, ribbed fabric with a hard, slightly lustred surface. The ribbed effect is created by weaving a finer silk or manufactured warp yarn with a heavier filler yarn, usually made of cotton, wool, or waste yarn. In the construction, the heavier filler yarn is completely covered by the warp yarn, thus creating the ribbed effect.
OXFORD: A fine, soft, lightweight woven cotton or cotton blend in a basket weave variation of the plain weave construction. The fabric is used primarily in shirtings.
PANNE VELVET: A type of lustrous, lightweight velvet fabric, usually made of silk or a manufactured fibre, in which the pile has been flattened in one direction.
PARACHUTE FABRIC: A compactly woven, lightweight fabric comparable with airplane cloth. It is made of silk, nylon, rayon, cotton, or polyester.
PEAU DE SOIE: A heavy, closely woven fabric with a fine diagonal rib like a twill. From the French for “skin of silk,” it drapes nicely and is often used for bridal gowns and eveningwear.
PERCALE: A medium weight, plain weave, low to medium count cotton-like fabric. End-uses include sheets, blouses, and dresses.
PERFORMANCE FABRIC: Fabrics made for a variety of end-use applications, which provide functional qualities, such as moisture management, UV protection, anti-microbial, thermo-regulation, and wind/water resistance.
PICOT: The small decorative loops that form an edging on ribbon and lace.
PIQUE: A medium weight fabric, either knit or woven, with raised dobby designs including cords, wales, waffles, or patterns.
PLISSE: A lightweight, plain weave, fabric, made from cotton, rayon, or acetate, and characterized by a puckered striped effect, usually in the warp direction. The crinkled effect is created through the application of a caustic soda solution, which shrinks the fabric in the areas of the fabric where it is applied. Plissé is similar in appearance to seersucker. End-uses include dresses, shirtings, pajamas, and bedspreads.
POINTELLE: Very feminine, delicate-looking, rib-knit fabric made with a pattern of openings.
POLYAMIDE: A synthetic fabric with wrinkle-resistant capabilities.
POLYESTER: A manufactured fibre with has high strength, excellent resiliency, and high abrasion resistance. Introduced in the early 1950s, it is second only to cotton in worldwide use. Low absorbency allows the fibre to dry quickly.
PONGEE: The most common form is a naturally coloured, lightweight, plain weave, silk-like fabric with a slubbed effect. End-uses include blouses and dresses.
PONTE DI ROMA: A fabric made in a double knit construction, usually produced in one colour rather than colour patterns. This plain fabric has an elastic quality with a slight horizontal line. The fabric looks the same on both sides.
POPLIN: A fabric made using a rib variation of the plain weave. The construction is characterized by having a slight ridge effect in one direction, usually the filling.
PTFE Fabric: A fabric made from Polytetrafluoroethylene, such as Gore-Tex.
RAMIE: A bast fibre, similar to flax, taken from the stalk of a plant grown in China.
RASCHEL KNIT: A warp knitted fabric in which the resulting knit fabric resembles hand crocheted fabrics, lace fabrics, and nettings. Raschel warp knits contain inlaid connecting yarns in addition to columns of knit stitches.
RAYON: A manufactured fibre composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters, or other vegetable matter.
RIP-STOP NYLON: A lightweight, wind resistant, and water resistant plain weave fabric. Large rib yarns stop tears without adding excess weight to active sportswear apparel and outdoor equipment such as sleeping bags and tents.
SATEEN: A fabric made from yarns with low lustre, such as cotton or other staple length fibres. It has a soft, smooth hand and a gentle lustre. Often used for draperies and upholstery
SATIN: A smooth fabric, as of silk or rayon, woven with a lustrous face surface and a dull back. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high lustre filament fibres in yarns which also have a low amount of twist.
SAXONY: A high-grade coating fabric made from Saxony Merino wool raised in Germany.
SEERSUCKER: A woven fabric in which some of the warp yarns are held under controlled tension at all times during the weaving, while other warp yarns are in a relaxed state. When the filling yarns are placed, this produces a puckered stripe effect in the fabric. Seersucker is traditionally made into summer sportswear such as shirts, trousers, and informal suits.
SERGE: A fabric with a smooth hand that is created by a two-up, two-down twill weave.
SEQUINED: Ornamented with small plates of shining metal or plastic.
SHANTUNG: A medium-weight, plain-weave fabric, characterized by a ribbed effect, resulting from slubbed yarns used in the warp or filling direction. Often used for dresses and suits.
SHARKSKIN: A hard-finished, low lustred, medium-weight fabric in a twill weave construction. It is most commonly found in men's worsted suitings.
SILK: A natural fibre obtained from the cocoons of the silkworm, which is the caterpillar of the silk moth. It feeds solely on the leaves of mulberry trees. It is one of the finest textiles and is very strong, lustrous, and absorbent.
SISAL: A strong bast fibre that originates from the leaves of the Agave plant, which is found in the West Indies, Central America, and Africa. End-uses include cordage and twine.
SMART TEXTILES: Textiles that can sense and react to changes in the environment, such as changes from mechanical, thermal, chemical, magnetic, and other sources.
SPANDEX: A manufactured elastomeric fibre that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking, and will still recover to its original length.
SUEDE: Leather with a napped surface.
SURAH: A light weight, lustrous twill weave fabric with a silk-like hand. It is available in silk, polyester, and rayon.Surah is the fabric of ties, dresses, and furnishings.
TAFFETA: A lustrous, medium-weight, plain-weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling (crosswise) direction. For formal wear, taffeta is a favourite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta gives the ultimate rustle.
TAPESTRY: A heavy, often hand-woven, ribbed fabric, featuring an elaborate design or pictorial display. The weft-faced fabric design is made by using coloured filling yarns, only in areas where needed, that are worked back and forth over spun warp yarns, which are visible on the back. End-uses include wall hangings and upholstery.
TENCEL: Made from raw natural fibres containing no toxic substances. It is 100% biodegradable and often comes from tree farms that practice sustainability.
TERRY: A woven fabric, usually cotton, with loop pile on one or both sides. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
TERRY VELOUR: A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. Terry velour is valued for its soft, luxurious hand. Typical uses include towels, robes, and apparel.
TICKING: A tightly woven, very durable fabric, usually made of cotton. It is usually striped and can be made by using a plain, satin, or twill weave construction. Often used for covering mattresses, box springs, pillows, and work clothes.
TRI-ACETATE: A manufactured fibre, which, like acetate, is made by modifying cellulose. Tri-acetate is less absorbent and less sensitive to high temperatures than acetate.
TULLE: A lightweight, extremely fine, machine-made netting, usually with a hexagon-shaped mesh effect. End-uses include dance costumes and veils.
TWEED: A medium to heavy weight, fluffy, woolen, twill weave fabric containing coloured slubbed yarns. Common end-uses include coats and suits.
TWILL: A fabric that shows a distinct diagonal wale on the face. Examples include denim, gabardine, and tricotine.
VELOUR: A medium-weight, closely-woven fabric with a thick pile. It can be made using either a plain weave or a satin weave construction. It resembles velvet, but has a lower cut pile. End-uses include apparel, upholstery, and drapes.
VELVET: A medium-weight, cut-pile constructed fabric in which the cut pile stands up very straight. It is woven using two sets of warp yarns; the extra set creates the pile. Velvet, a luxurious fabric, is commonly made with a filament fibre for high lustre and smooth hand.
VELVETEEN: A cotton cut-pile weave fabric, utilizing extra fill yarn construction, with either a twill or a plain weave back. The fabric is woven with two sets of filling yarns; the extra set creates the pile.
VENICE LACE: This lace often has a high profile, and is made using a needlepoint technique rather than embroidery. A heavier weight lace, the patterns vary from geometric to floral. Each pattern is attached to the others by bars made of thread.
VIRGIN WOOL: New wool that has never been used before or reclaimed from any other products.
VISCOSE: The most common type of rayon.
VOILE: A crisp, lightweight, plain weave cotton-like fabric, made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction. Similar in appearance to organdy and organza.
WHIPCORD: A woven fabric with a very steep and compacted twill appearance on the face of the goods. End-uses include dress woolens, worsteds, or wool blends, and many types of uniforms.
WIGWAN: A converted cotton cloth, dyed black, brown or gray, and given a firm starched, plain calender finish. Often used for interlinings in men's and boys’ clothing to give body to the garment.
WOOL: Usually associated with fibre or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lambs. However, the term "wool" can also apply to all animal hair fibres, including the hair of the Kashmir or Angora goat or the specialty hair fibres of the camel, alpaca, llama, or vicuna.
WORSTED FABRIC: A tightly woven fabric made by using only long staple, combed wool or wool-blend yarns. The fabric has a hard, smooth surface. Gabardine is an example of a worsted fabric. A common end-use is men's tailored suits.